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13. Distributed Virtual Switch Walkthroug

Let us do the walk-through of the distributed virtual switch. So we have one distributed virtual switch. I can come here and show you a summary of the primary VLAN as well as the configuration of this virtual switch. So I can go to "configuration," "figuration," and "properties" from here. Now you can see that you have properties related to general property discovery protocols, some sort of administrator contract, or contacts, which are the only ones we have. I'll switch and switch and show you options. Then you can build the topology, and from there you can build a private VLAN. Mirroring is related to your configuration. You are in charge of configuration, configuration, and health checks.

So I'll show you all these ones. Assume you want to set properties, so properties, and then configuration, configuration, and then properties’) Properly click "edit." n) Click "edit. When you click, the option "t the o." will appear in the general section. In general, you can change the total number of objects in your IO control as well as disable or enable it sable enable. You can put the right, then what is the right? What is Uplink? ng of the uplink? You can include more uplinks. You ports. number of enable or disabled people You must turn off audio control. If you go inside the advertisement option, see the options. Multimode, filter Mo protocol, Andrey protocol, ad contract, and which Aretino contr. Depending on the situation, we now know whether to increase or decrease the theme. The use case. However, in multimode filter mode, there are two option

Let us do the walk-through of the distributed virtual switch. So we have one distributed virtual switch. I can come here and show you a summary of the primary VLAN as well as the configuration of this virtual switch. So I can go to "configuration," "figuration," and "properties" from here. Now you can see that you have properties related to general property discovery protocols, some sort of administrator contract, or contacts, which are the only ones we have. I'll switch and switch and show you options. Then you can build the topology, and from there you can build a private VLAN. Mirroring is related to Your configuration. You are in charge of configuration, configuration, and health checks. ns: basic snooping and enhanced snooping.

It takes the basic IPV4 address, four add-ons to determine what the mac address is, and then it will traffic. thcasesaffic. In the case of IGMsnooping, MP members will forward the traffic protocol as long as snooping is part of their membership. Every protocol option is available: CDP, LDP, and Disable. So, if you're using the CDP protocol, you'll notice that LDP is enabled in the CDP LDP as well. So, as a CDP, you can choose to be a listener, an advertiser, or both. We can go check, check again, and edit again. Click "Edit." Once y,ick Either way, you get the options related to MTU, VLAN, and MTU. What is the state interval? the interval? These are the minutes since the over fell over. What?' White state interval? the intwant,l? You can change the spelling if you want. Correct. So, what am I going to do before proceeding? Allow me to go VSgclient, the VS clashed you, and show you all of these options and ensure that they are all correct. So I used iVSiclient to log in. What cans do? You have choices. You proceed to the menu.You have the option of networking. Also, you are networking here; he is networking inside, and I am networking on the side network. Details can be found in the switch summary. Howtch denotes how many networks you have; this is simply a way of reporting how many HSTs you have to a group.

How many virtual machines? re connected. How ma there? Are they there? The feature is then available if you have any tags with the feature ygovandibegseen. Net Flow, eature All of these are supported by NetFlow. are supported NetFlow supports LLDP-enabled link aggregation, which is the protocol used for basic port mirroring with SUMLD, as well as IGMP. ng supported. supported health check, and then you have the cysts, so how can you tri So, how do you go about doing this? If I goclick edit here, you can see and change go andch. Change the name; I can change the number of ports and connections between ports, and this will be four ports under your control. If you au description, you can enable or disable it. Select eTranscription, then this advanced option.

We have the vWED option here. I cast the bMLD option after UYoution notices the multicast option.There are several promising options for the P MLD protocol: ha, CDP, LDP, and CDP. Disaoperation. What kind of operation is that? Listen, you want both lists: we can look up the administrator's contract name and other information in the settings. This topology We've seen the porthe VM before, in the walkthrough and the walkthrough, and they're basically just kernel interfaces, and these are just uplines that belong to the interface, the cal interface, so topology.the topology We also have a prototype, a villain example, and a community-isolated uprising if you want to create your own licence scope.

Kiosks,retc.,se. Create an ago and anate wheel, as well as an inside VLAN for kiosks and so on.Define "primary villain" and "secondary villain," as in secondary, so we can go back and forth between them and figure out who the primary villain is, plus anything else we want to add. "u wacetera," "aetcetera," "tcorrect," "etera," and you can see you're promiscuous by default, but who are you?" Let us consider our options. It is creating options at the moment. You can change if I click here.Consider the number 30, for example: This is the What exactly is the V-Have? do you have? So, if you click here by default, it will take you to a promiscuous site, but I will not go there; inside, leave this alone. For the time being, I'll leave this alone so that I can use primaryVLAN. I have a secondary VLAN; you can see the primary VLAN. Secondary VLANs are both 23 in this manner, and then we have NetFlow, which is a collector IP and is very similar to the Cisco configuration of Netflix. Collector port: what's the domain switch IP address? And then you have the collector sampling inactive or active timers, etc., and then we can do the mirroring.

This is nothing more than the spanor er span that we have in Cisco, so if I go check the options, you can see clearly here that you have distributed port mirroring. Remote mirroring source Because remote mirroring destination encapsulates remote mirroring source, we have access to all port mirroring options. Finally, you can go and check the health alarm for VLAN and MTU teaming and failover, so I can go and check the health and the state for VLAN and MTU. You can go and enable this for a 1-minute teaming failover state. You can go and enable, and you can click OK. This is the setting that we can go and do inside the V switch; later on, we'll add the rest of the things as well, but you can go log in and check most of the features, and here you can see the difference now between the standard switch and the distributed switch; in the distributed switch, you have so many added features that you have a private villain. You have NetFlow. You have mirroring. health check, et cetera), so that's why this distributed virtual switch is actually important and popular in the production network.

14. Create Distributed Port Group

Now we are going to learn how to create the distributed port group. It's actually very easy. I can go to the distributed virtual switch, right-click, and then I can create this distributed port group. So I have that option; I can go and give any name. I will give it any logical name. Then we have the configuration setting. What's the port-binding option? It is static or femoral. What's the port allocation option? Is the number of ports fixed or elastic? The resource pool will add some advanced options. So what does it mean by "port binding"? Here, you can see the first option is port binding. Either we can use a static interface, so statically the VM interfaces, or a V nick that I can go and attach to the distributed port group, or there is no binding, which is the female port.

Then in the port allocation, you can see that you have the elastic option. You have a fixed option. Elastic means that this is the default option. By default, you have eight ports assigned. If that eighth port gets assigned, it will create another eight ports. "Fixed" means the default number of ports is set to eight. No additional ports are created. When all the ports have been assigned or we have exhausted the number of ports, we can go and give the number of ports. Then we have the option related to the network resource pool. While we are using this network resource pool, if you have created a network pool to help control traffic, you can select this just for control traffic. We have this option.

Then, at the bottom, you can see that you have the VLAN type. So VLAN types might be nonetrunking, private villains, et cetera. So whatever option we have over the interface to the VLAN, we can go and assign it, very much similar to Cisco interfaces where we have switchboard mode access trunk and add some VLAN over the trunk, et cetera. Then we have the private VLAN option also in the switch interfaces. So we have all those options. Then finally, you have the advanced option. Select this checkbox to customise the policy configuration for the new distributed port group. So if you want to customize, you can go here and use the advanced option. Here we can see advanced checkthis customise default policy configuration. So like that, we'll go and create the port group. Once you create that, you can go and check inside the VM networking. This new port group will be created. Now next what we can do, we'll goto the topology section and we will seethat where exactly this port group is. You can go and check that port group.

Not only can you check the port group, but you can also see what I will do in the activity that some of the VMs with the ven I will assign to this particular port group. And then we can see that the Venik is mapped to the VM nick or the uplink. So those things we can go look at, and you can see in the diagram that you have the VM kernel ports. You have the VM kernel port with the different port groups as well. All right. Here you can see this tiny URL. The vnik is mapped to the VM nick. So let's log into the VSV client and complete this task. All right. So I logged in inside the VSA client, and we are inside the VM network. We are inside the network option. So here we have the network. Here, you can see that you have the distributed virtual switch. Simply go and do the right click. You can create the distributed port group. Yes, I want to create the port group. Although I have the option to import the port group, I manage the distributed port group. So I don't want to say the name. So I'm going to use this as an example, and I give the name as a tin and e web server group. Okay, location is at this particular switch.

That's okay. We'll go next. Then you can see the option. You have the port-bound staticeps femoris that is not bound. so static and binding. You have the elastic and fixed options. By default, you have the eight. After that, it will go and add a network resource pool for network control traffic. We'll leave it VLAN type. I'll leave it at "none." But you have the VLAN VLAN ranking and the private VLAN option, which are customised default policy configurations. If you enable, then you can see that you have traffic, shipping, teaming, failover monitoring, and miscellaneous all those customization options will get appeared. So I'll pass this on. So we understand you'll see all those options as well. We have already discussed the promiscuous Mac address and the force transmit. And let me go back. All is reject, reject, reject.

I'll make this except for the moments we have checked in our last section. Then the traffic is shipping at the moment. I'll leave this as it is. Then you can see that you have four uplinks. All are active. The default is to route based on the originating virtual port. That's the default load balancing method. Then you have the linked network failure status. You have probed, and we have studied about this. Notify switches fall back. Yes, so it will restore the original status of the interface. If it will fall back, then monitor it. I will not use Netflix at the moment. But if you want, you can go enable it, and then you can use it at the moment. I'll mark this as disabled. Then you have the miscellaneous option inside miscellaneousblock all ports, which is yes or no. We'll leave this next. So now you have your distributed port group with all those options. And now here, you can see that you have a tiny web server.

This is attached to two hosts. That is two hypervisors in the network-protocol profile that are not there. The rest of the things are not there at the moment. So here you can see that it is attached to two hosts. But suppose if you want to attach the hosthere we'll see that I'll show you how to do some sort of manipulation later on. At the moment, what I want to show at this point in time is that once you create the distributed port group, first of all, I want to go to the switch and I want to show you, let me go and show you the changes that happen. So if I go here now, I can see that the network is six plus one. Initially, it was five. Rest of the things, we'll leave this as is. At the moment, I can go to the configuration within the configuration and show you this topology option. Once you're inside the topology, if I scroll down here, you can see here that you have this tiny web server group as per the alpha-vertical order they have taken. So E, S, and then T, and then V.

So now what I want to show here are a few of the port groups. So for example, this particular port group that isVM regional A, zero, and BDS comp has two virtual machines, tiny, and the windows are now mapped. So they are mapped from here up to this point, correct? If you want to see the setting, you can see it. So what I want to do here is remove this tiny piece and attach it here so you can see that the number of virtual machines will increase, correct? So that will be the valid test. What I can do here are multiple ways we have I can go to the host cluster or maybe VM and templates because I'm looking for tinyLinux, and those are both what I am looking for. So what I can do here is go to the edit setting; that's the easiest way to get there. I can go to the network controller; I can browse this; and now you can associate with the tiny web server. Remember, port group is the same type of attribute and has the same type of properties that you are connecting your endpoint or the virtual machine interface to in this particular group. Right?

So I've done this; once we've done this, I'll click Okay, then I'll go to this tiny tool as well, and they also will go to the edit settings once we're here. Instead of VM network, click Browse, and then I'll go and use this tiny web server group. Okay? Then we'll go back to the networking, and we'll go to the switch configuration and topology. We are already inside the topology. Now you can see this tiny URL to ourconnected.com going to Vinik on this particular uplink. And if you want to see this uplink and the associated host, So this host has these two uplinks: VMIC zero, zero, one like zero, and one VM nick zero, one. Both the host and the guest have those. So like that, you can see that it is mapped. Few of the uplinks—three and four—are unused. Few of the uplinks are in use. So this is the way you can create the port group. Once you have the port group, you can go and attach the VM interface to the port group. And if you want, you can go and verify this particular configuration and topology option. All right, so I hope you enjoyed up to this point. Let's stop here. The next section will do more lab-related work on this.

15. Create new Distributed Virtual Switch

Let us first create a new distributed switch, and then we'll get started as soon as possible. I'llp.e'lsome VMss etceteraceteretcetera. So let us try to work together. vitactivity. So, to switch-distributed switch, go to the center, which is where the data centre is, look at the center, dater, and then click.click. But there are multiple ways to thing. same thing. So I can do the here and there and here, and then I select "Create action, create Switch. "So we have the opioid inside Switch, but also there. I suppose that's true. Or, if they can be imported, you can learn them as well. Then we'll proceed by name.. WSixrSix, sing the ESXi and the ESXi verSevenis Silater.

So you have a choice. What is the cooption? How many people use tion opt uplinks? are putting? W/Otcontrol? Is it under control? What is the dgroup? port group? So create a "dgroup. port group." The port group (group of ports)When you connect a switch, it creates one default port group. Now that you've arrived, you're ready to observe, summarize, and conclude. Finish. So you can now sit and connect to a distributed virtual switch with ease.Simply,witch. Simply put, we can go in with a few chlorines, maybe four, and easiswitch.Now, once I have a switch, what's here? What happens when you switch—and he switches? Metis hapwegimportre is importing that ACI switch. So inside ACI, when we are doing some sort of VMM integration, we will have that VM.

So I created a virtual switch within ACI using Cisco ACI-applicatinfrastructure, and that VSV will be downloaded from Cisco. So, whether that's what you've created or what you've created here, once you've created the witch, you must add the host to the switch. So this witch has no attachments. So I can host 1 a2ne3, host 3, and host 4.Correct? ray Correct? So once we have that, I want to add the hypervisors. So here you can see new videos. I can click. Add and host, then get the hhost. On nethost, manage the host.network.ost file. Now,ove host. Now, while you're adding the host to this switch, this is the switch to which we'll be adding the host. You can use the physical adapter if you prefer. sicaladapter, VM kernel adapter management, MA network, and M netwin The summary is finished.to finish one of your hosts, delete the host ESXi Two and ESXi One are two hosts. You both should select both. You can add this with this switch. When you have it, you will have the option Mana Network. What we can do now is use the existing interfaces, which are the V-neck and the "select up" link. As a result, you must designate it as an uplink. You can go here. select this. So you can see here that uplinks can be assigned—I have the VM nick three as that—and then the uplink assignment is applied to the host.

As a result, this uplink will connect to both hosts one and two. So you can see that okay, and then I'll uplink, which is nothing.3M Nick host number ho and number o3M Nick three and two. That’s why you saw 0 and VM even in the previous section. Nick one is a component of host one, just as VM Nick zezerot of M Nick zero and Nick one are components of well.In this cashappen, VMpNick will also be present. There are three Ms. Nicks, three hosts, and one Nick. Nothing nisttheuFiscal Interface, which also serves as host number two, This thing is correct? end. Correct? But the moral of the story is that you choose these intersections and assign them, and that's all there is to its you must select that. Suppose now that you are selecting thin interfaces. You select this, and it is then attached to it, correct? All right, So we attached, and your chat networking has finally been migrated. Networking. So you can see the virtual machines and other hosts to which they are connected here. Few machines exist on their own; they are another type of host.

other host. You can also go back if you want to do it now. I can go VM, cu time, and I have a connection. So it's very straightforward. You are now ready to finish it. You are done. Once you've done that, you can go an well. ify as well. So I can gods, and the BDS, and I can cheassociation. I can go an VMs if VMs are associated. Check the virtual machines. You can check the tall if you have the port group and can go and check the groups like that one and the canation.ogy and everything. So that's how we'll go about making the switch. So what I mean is that I will log into the Vsphere and then proceed as follows: crearight. All right. So I logged in inside client and saw what I could do here, which, as the site name suggests, is a data center.And if you look over there and here, you'll notice that you can subscribe to hosts, clusters, and so on. However, his voice was broadcast.uted Swit there. click there name? Spiritual names are the only names I can give. This will demonstrate, for, and VICAR.Is that correct, VMM and vicar? Okay, correct?

This is the name I chose.e this name.I can come back here and I will make this asa VM distributed port group, so DPC, any name you can give, then you can click next, and now you have the summary very easily. You have created one more switch here, and this particular switch has the network, so you can see here that you have the GPG and you have the uplink as well, so it's actually very interesting to go and verify the network. related to this, I'll come to this topology as well, but if you want to see here, you can see that you have the distributed port group, which you have created with very default configuration, and we have the uplink port group. So whenever you are creating the new distributed virtual switch at that time, all your uplinks, whatever they are, are part of one port group.

So in this case, we have for example, four uplinks, and all those four uplinks are part of one port group. Let me show you the topology so you will understand this what I tried to explain here. I can go to the switch and the topology. You can see all your four uplift that we have added. They are part of this port group. This is my example. This is my physical interface correct. And then I have a port group that port group is associated with or I'm going to associate with the VM interfaces. So it will be used as a venu and this will be used as a VM nick inside and outside. Very easy and straightforward. Now if you want to make any changes at all, everything we can go and do with this particular switch is covered by all these options we have, so if you want to change any LCP thing, you can go and change it; there is no problem. Load balancing and all options are there.

If you want to add Netflix, you can go and click "Add Netflix configuration." There is no problem with that, so that's the thing you can see. Now, if you compare the standard switch and the GPS, you have plenty of options here that you don't have inside the standard switch, correct? So I very much want to show you this proposal because now we have a visible representation, correct? So what I want to do is go to the VM and say, for example, Linux tinier Linux two and this particular guy. If you go and check the network related to this guy, he's belonging to this particular port group, correct? Tiny web server group What I want to do here is right click here. I'll go to edit settings, and then this network adapter is the one I want to attach to the new group that we have created, so what is our group name? Let's see here. You can see that storage is tinyVM. I don't have that group here, correct?

Why don't we have a group showing here? Because the reason behind this is that once you created this DVS, the history virtual switch, and if you go to the host, you can see it is not attached with any of the hosts, any of the ESXi, so first of all, you should go and attach this with this host. So what you can do is simply right-click here and then you have the option attach host. So let's see, we have the edit setting and all those things also, but we should get the option related to attaching the host, and you can see add and manage host you have this option, so what you want, you want to add host, yes, go next, whatever host you want to add, so go and click new host, and you can select one or both now with this particular switch we are adding the host.

The next option we have is to manage the physical adapter, correct? So what we can do here is I can click this three because this is free at the moment, and I'll click here, select this, and click "assign up links." If you do that, what will happen? Assign to a link one both the hosts, so ESXi one is assigned with three and ESXi two will also assign with three, so it should be like this that both the hosts are assigned here if not, then you go and select one by one like I have done, so now you can see that both the hosts are assigned if you want to unassign, then that option is also there, so one by one what you can do here. You select it and then assign a link, and then scroll down and assign the AppLink like that, and we'll go next. I don't want to do anything related to VM. Colonel at the moment, but if you want, you have that option as well. We'll go next, then migrate the VM network; this migration will be seen later on. Now that I've finished this, I can go and check the recent tasks. Now you can see when tasks both came here. You can also see what we can do now. Now we can go to the VMs. I'm interested too.

Now you can go to the edit setting, and now you will see that port group option. So I'll go here, and I can see this VMM with DPG. click okay. And once you click okay, click connect. So let me do this. You can go and check the recent tasks. It is completed. If it is completed, then we will go back here and let's go back to the networking. So I can show you the topology option now here. If you go and check the configuration, topology now you can see that you have the VM that is connected here, and if you want to see the uplink attached, which interface is here, you can see okay, so you're seeing this option now from scratch. We created one distributed switch, created one port group, and attached this port group with the VM. We went here, we have attached the uplinks here, and you can see how it can be done. Previously, we studied how to change the settings with the uplink and how to play around with these two groups as well. So this is a way you can see the plenty of options that are there related to this, and we can easily create and manipulate the distributed switches. All right, so let's stop here.

16. VRF

in two dots, two dots, and three dot three. We have to learn about VRF, GRE, IPSE tunnelling lists, and VXLAN. So let's start VRF virtual routing and forwarding. What is the use of VRF when you're creating a virtual routing and forwarding instance? So at that time, you can segregate or segment the routing table. So for example, you may have one global routing table and then a segmented routing table, or you can think of it like this: for customer A, you have one customer B, you have one customer C, and you have one like that.

So it's like segmentation and routing, and what's the use case for that? So you may have business VPN services, network segmentation, data centre access, etc. For now, this term that we are seeing here actually refers to layer three virtualization in terms of routing. But if you see and verify that, do you have any layer-two virtualization technique? Yes, we have VLAN virtual land as a layer-two virtualization technique where, for example, every VLAN has its own spanning-three instance. Every VLAN has its own Mac forwarding table. Likewise, if you go and check VRF, you'll find that all the VRS have their own safe and their own routing processes, which means most of the routing protocols they support are VRF. And in the diagram, you can see that you have one global table, and then you can have a VRF. So what we are doing is creating a VRF, and then we are associating that VRF with one of the L-3 three interface.

So that means that one L-3 interface, or one interface specifically, can have only one VRF. And later in the last section, you'll come to know about this. Now we have various techniques related to VRF to provide fast switching or fastpathing VR flight and then MPLS. MPLS is quite popular. So what's the idea behind this? It's that you may have end-to-end segmentation. So suppose if I have a diagram, so here you can see that maybe you have one end whereyou have VRFA and VRFB, and then you want this segregation or this virtual routing instance to propagate throughout the network, meaning end-to-end routing instance or end-to-end segmentation. Now, if you go and use the VRF light, in that case, whatever devices you have in between, you can see that although you have only one switch in between, it is showing green and red, which means you have two VRFs, two routing instances, and two processors for virtualization inside one box.

We can think like that. So the idea here is that if you are using VR flight, then you have to go and enable it on all the devices. And that's the problem that we have with our flights: although they are very easy to use, they are not scalable. So that's the reason we are using MPLS multiprotocol label switching, where again you are using LDP as a protocol to create the labels and then to exchange the label. Okay, so this is one of the uses of the brief. Although we are going to perform one lab, And in that lab, you will see use of this VR for front door VRS with Ipsq and with the Tangling method. So we have that lab at this point in time. It is a technique where you can create or where you can divide a global routing table into small independent routing tables. And all these VRFs are holding their own forwarding table and route process. Okay, if you want to propagate it end-to-end, you can use VRF light. But in that case, you have to enable VRF lighting and those VRF to all the devices in between. One other thing here that you can see is VRF. They are supporting encapsulation as well. That two. One Q. All right, so these are the things related to VRF. We can stop here, and in the next section, we are going to learn about GRE.

17. GRE Generic Routing Encapsulation

Next up, we have generic routing encapsulation. What's the use of generic routing encapsulation? With its use, you can create a tenant from one place to another place with use of GRE. Now, the interesting thing about this year is that, as long as you have IP reachability and you don't want to expose your intermediate devices, you can create a GRE tunnel from one place to another place.

Now maybe we can say at this point in time, okay, I'm creating the GRE tunnel. So what about security? Now we can integrate GRE with IPsec as well. We can integrate GRE with IKE as well. So in the last section, I will show you that not only that will create the tunnel between two endpoints. So whatever intermediate devices we have, we are going to create a tunnel on top of that, and the source and destination tunnels will be the endpoints of the source and destination egress interfaces. In this case, what we are achieving is, first of all, that we don't want to go hop by hop and take the routing decision, although we are directly reaching from one channel and pointing to the other channel.

So we are creating the tunnel, and then for security reasons, we can integrate our GRE with Ipsick as well. So both the things, or both the features, we are achieving here—we are doing the routing, and we are doing IPsec as well. Originally it was developed by Cisco, but later it became an industry standard, and later on in this session I'll show you the packet format as well. Here you can see that the first thing that makes Gr useful is that you can integrate it with IPsec for security reason first thing. Second thing, one of the great advantages of GRE is that it allows the routing of IP packets between private IP networks that are separated over public IPV4 on the internet. So that is also a very interesting use case that we have in that you can create the GRE in between the private and the public network as well.

Okay, now this GRE also supports encapsulating IPV for broadcast and multicast traffic. These are the high-level features we have for GRE. How this package format will look is taken from RFC 170 and the GRE adore. So here, you can see that you have certain flags. Let me quickly go and highlight those flags. So we have flagsum, route, key, sequence, source route. Then we have this recurrence, which is something like a recursive route. So it is written in short like "recur," but this is for the recursive route. Then you have the flags; you have the version, which indicates what protocol type you have. So, for example, if you are using IP packets, then what will be the protocol type checksum? Now interesting thing here, so that's the reason I'm highlighting this thing that this checksum. If you have a checksum, this field will become one. If you have routing, this field will become one.

If we have an authentication key, this will become one. If you have a GRE sequence, this will become one. although I have the explanation in the upcoming slide. So let me quickly show you that you have the checksum "C" routing present that will become "R." So here you can see R and routing. If your flag is one, that means you have the routing. If you set the key for authentication, the key flag will become one. If you have the package sequence number, then this flag will become one. And here you can see the sequence numbers for the GRE packets corrected again; if you have a strict source route, then the smallest will become the one for recursion control and version number. Generally, they are said to be of type "zero" protocol type. For the IP field, it is set to zero. Suppose you are doing the packet capture to understand what type of packet it is it. If you're getting 80 zero, that means it's the grip packet, then the checksum, then the key, and the sequence number saying that we have discussed.

All right, so let's finally discuss the packet format, the normal packet or original IP packet, and how it looks like, and then how it looks when you redo the GRE encapsulation. So once you do the GRE encapsulation, you can see your original packet. So you have your original IP, TCP, and UDP application layer. On top of that, you are putting the GRE header, and then you have the outer IP header. OK, so now you can think like this: you have the inner header and then you have the outer header. The inner header is your actual IP and your payload, and the outer header is the encapsulation with the GRE with the tunnel IP addresses. All right, so let's stop here, and the next section will start IPsec.

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